Assessment of dental status and oral hygiene in the study population of cystic fibrosis patients in the Podlasie province

Dšbrowska E, Błahuszewska K, Minarowska A, Kaczmarski M, NiedŸwiecka-Andrzejewicz I, Stokowska W


Purpose: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common genetic diseases worldwide. It is caused by mutations of the gene situated on the long-arm of the 7th chromosome coding Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTCR) which is responsible for the synthesis of cAMP- -dependent membrane chloride channel located on the top surface of epithelial cells of exocrine glands. Accumulation of the secretion in the outlet ducts caused by a dysfunction or lack of CFTR proteins leads to abnormal activity of exocrine glands, especially in the respiratory and alimentary tracts. Carbohydrates, the main dietary component, supply energy to the body, but at the same time are the major cariogenic agent. The aim of the current study was to assess dental caries disease and oral hygiene in CF patients in the region of Podlasie.
Material and methods: The study involved 23 patients with cystic fibrosis, aged 2.5-24 years, from the Podlasie Province treated in the Outpatient Cystic Fibrosis Department of the Children’s University Hospital in Białystok. Three age groups were distinguished: 1-5, 6-12, 13-24 years. The following were evaluated: caries incidence (percentage of patients with caries CI), caries intensity – based on the mean dmf/DMF score, oral hygiene – based on the dental plaque index (OHI-pl).
Results: The incidence rate of caries was found to be very high both in the CF population and in the control group. In children with mixed dentition it was 100%. For permanent teeth, mean DMF score was 3.55 in group II and 10.9 in group III. In CF patients, dental plaque index was the highest in group III.
Conclusions: In CF patients, there is a serious risk of caries due to severe course of the disease, long-term administration of medications and high carbohydrate diet. CF patients should remain under constant dental care according to the individually designed programmes of oral health promotion and caries prophylaxis.

Key words: dental status, oral hygiene, cystic fibrosis.