Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in subgingival and supragingival plaques of adult patients with periodontal disease

Daniluk T, Tokajuk G, Cylwik-Rokicka D, Ro┐kiewicz D, Zaremba ML, Stokowska W


Purpose: Clinical, epidemiological and microbiological examinations of adult patients with periodontal disease.
Material and methods: The study of population consisted of 21 subjects (13 female and 8 male) aged 38-58 years, treated in the Outpatient Department of Periodontology. Dental examinations were performed at an artificial light and using a WHO periodontometer, a mirror and a probe. Periodontal status was assessed by determination of the probing pocket depth (CPI), gingival state (GSBI according to Mühlemann and Son), and oral hygiene index (according to Silness and Löe). Material for microbiological examination was collected from subgingival and supragingival plaques of each patient. Additionally, pus was obtained from 8 patients and periodontal pocket fluid from 2 patients. The samples were examined for the presence of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and Candida yeasts. Standard procedures were used for culture and identification of bacteria and fungi.
Results: Candida yeasts were not isolated from adults with periodontal disease. In 19/21 patients, cultures of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria from subgingival and supra­gingival plaque samples were positive. A total of 42 bacterial strains were isolated from subgingival plaques, of which 24 (57.1%) belonged to 7 anaerobic species and 18 (42.9%) to 12 aerobic species (p>0.05). There were more aerobic (33/53; 62.3%) than anaerobic bacteria (20/53; 37.7%) (p<0.05) in supragingival plaques. Anaerobes were isolated more frequently than aerobes from the abscess (p<0.05).
Conclusions: 1) In adult patients with periodontal disease, Gram-positive anaerobes, including Peptostreptococcus, were the predominant bacteria in the subgingival plaque.
2) While in the supragingival plaque, Gram-positive aerobic cocci (Streptococcus and Staphylococcus) were predominant.

Key words: adult periodontitis, supra- and subgingival plaques, bacterial composition, anaerobic bacteria.