Occurrence rate of oral Candida albicans in denture wearer patients

Daniluk T, Tokajuk G, Stokowska W, Fiedoruk K, Ściepuk M, Zaremba ML, Rożkiewicz D, Cylwik-Rokicka D, Kędra BA, Anielska I, Górska M, Kędra BR


Purpose: The aim was to determine the fungi occurrence rate in the oral cavity of denture wearer patients in comparison to those without dentures.
Material and methods: The examinations were conducted in patients treated in two clinical departments of the University Hospital. Demographic data and those connected with basic diseases were collected and the evaluation concerning dentition and oral hygiene was performed.
Samples for mycological examinations from the tongue dorsa, palatal mucosa, and mucosal surfaces of dentures were collected from patients with dentures while tongue and palate swabs were taken from those without dentures. For culture and identify of fungi standard methods were used.
Results: Dental and mycological examinations were performed in 95 patients, out of which 57 (60.0%) used complete or partial dentures and 38 (40.0%) had their own dentition (without dentures). Oral cavity revealed only growth of Candida albicans species, more frequently in patients with dentures (38/57; 66.7%) than in those without dentures (11/38; 28.9%) (p=0.0003). C. albicans statistically significantly more frequently was isolated in denture wearer patients with diabetes mellitus (p=0.0207) and without diabetes (p=0.0376) comparing to such groups of patients but without dentures. Among 32 patients with diabetes mellitus, 14 (43.8%) revealed C. albicans; this rate was comparable with 9/23 (39.1%) patients without diabetes (p>0.05). A similar analysis, conducted in 25 surgical patients with abdominal cancer and 15 – without – cancers, did not show statistically significant differences in the incidence rate of C. albicans; it also concerned denture wearers (14/16; 87.5%) and non-wearing dentures (5/9; 55.6%) (p>0.05) with cancer. In 37 (64.9%) wearer patients denture stomatitis was observed, associated mainly with C. albicans infections (29/37; 78.4%).
Conclusions: 1) Mycological findings from the present study do not indicate that diabetes mellitus or advanced cancer has a significant effect on oral colonisation by Can­dida albicans or other species of Candida genus. 2) The occurrence rate of oral Candida albicans in patients with dentures (diabetic and non-diabetic, cancer and non-cancer patients) was higher than in patients without dentures (p<0.05).

Key words: oral Candida albicans, denture plaque, denture wearers, diabetes mellitus, denture stomatitis, oral hygiene.