Preliminary evaluation of morphological parameters of the saliva in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment

Kasacka I, Szarmach IJ, Buczko P, Tankiewicz A, Pawlak D


Purpose: In recent years, many reports have focused on clinical changes in the oral cavity of orthodontic patients, manifested in general inflammation of the mucosa. In order to better understand histopathological alterations in the mouth and the use of easily available diagnostic material, we decided to assess the morphology of salivary cells at different time points of treatment with orthodontic appliances.
Material and methods: The study material included non-stimulated saliva obtained from 21 orthodontic patients and 11 healthy secondary school students (controls). After fixation in 96% ethanol the smears were stained with PAS + hematoxylin or H+E, and using the methods of May-Grünwald-Giemsa and Feulgen.
Results: As revealed by the histopathological examinations of saliva smears, patients treated with intra-oral fixed orthodontic appliances showed morphological changes in oral epithelial cells and in the number of leukocytes as compared to the control group. The changes were most pronounced in the first months of treatment.
Conclusions: The preliminary data indicate that orthodontic patients develop changes in the composition and morphology of salivary cells, the intensity of which depends on the time of exposure to the appliance.

Key words: morphology, salivary cells, orthodontic patients.