Preliminary evaluation of saliva composition in allergic patients subjected to orthodontic treatment; morphological examination

Kasacka I, Szarmach IJ, Buczko P, Tankiewicz A, Pawlak D


Purpose: Intra-oral fixed orthodontic appliances, so frequently used in the treatment of malocclusions, may cause pathomorphological changes in the mouth and can be a potential source of antigen stimulation. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to assess the changes in salivary cells of orthodontically treated allergic patients.
Material and methods: The study material was the non-stimulated saliva samples collected from 28 allergic patients subjected to orthodontic treatment with intra-oral fixed appliances and from 11 healthy secondary school students (controls).
After fixation in 96% ethanol, saliva smears were stained with PAS + hematoxylin or H+E, and using the methods of May-Grünwald-Giemsa and Feulgen.

The microscopic analysis was made of oral epithelial cells and inflow elements, with regard to their shape, size, the nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio and nuclear chromatin condensation.
Results: The results of preliminary investigations indicate that allergic patients with fixed orthodontic appliances exhibit changes in the morphology and composition of salivary cells as compared to control patients. Differences in the morphological picture were most pronounced in the first months of orthodontic treatment.
Conclusions: It was shown that the number and morphology of salivary cells in allergic patients altered in response to ions released from dental alloys. Thus, saliva can be used as diagnostic material.

Key words: allergic patients, salivary cells, dental materials.