Polymorphism in interleukin-1 gene and the risk of periodontitis in a Polish population

Droździk A, Kurzawski M, Safronow K, Banach J


Purpose: The aim of the present study was to explore an association between IL-1B polymorphism and periodontal disease in patients with chronic periodontitis and subjects with aggressive periodontitis in a Polish population. In multivariate logistic regression the association of the following parameters: genotype, age, sex, smoking status, and approximal space plaque index (API) >50% with the risk of periodontitis was analyzed.

Material and methods: Fifty-two unrelated patients suffering from periodontitis, 20 of them with generalized aggressive periodontitis and 32 with generalized advanced chronic periodontitis were enrolled into the study. Control group consisted of 52 healthy volunteers, without signs of periodontitis. IL-1B+3954 polymorphism was determined using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).

Results: There were no significant differences in the distribution of IL-1B+3954 genotypes and alleles between periodontal patients either with chronic or aggressive periodontitis and the controls. A predisposing genotype consisting of allele 2 was carried by 34.4% of subjects with chronic periodontitis, 25.0% of subjects with aggressive periodontitis, and 40.3% of healthy subjects. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed significant association of age (p=0.003), smoking (p=0.03), and API >50% (p=0.002) with the appearance of aggressive periodontitis, as well as API >50% (p<0.001) with chronic periodontitis.

Conclusions: The study revealed no association of IL-1B polymorphism and the risk of aggressive and chronic periodontitis. The risk of aggressive periodontitis was significantly associated with age, smoking, and oral hygiene where as chronic periodontitis with oral hygiene only.

Key words: polymorphism, interleukin-1B gene, periodontitis.